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Technological change is one of the key driving forces behind economic growth. In this process, the diffusion of new technologies plays a vital role. In particular, the early stages of diffusion, in which knowledge is created and transferred for wider industrial use, are seen as crucial to the broader societal impact of technologies.

Therefore, it is essential to understand how technologies diffuse from academia to industry, and to highlight different factors that facilitate or hinder the diffusion process.

Tuomo Nikulainen's thesis addresses the diffusion of nanotechnology and biotechnology in four articles, each highlighting a specific and critical part of the early-stage diffusion process.

Article 1: The outcomes of individual level technology transfer and the role of research collaboration networks.

Article 2: Transferring science-based technologies to industry - Does nanotechnology make a difference?

Article 3: Patent citations indicating present value of the biotechnology business.

Article 4: Identifying nanotechnological linkages in the Finnish economy - An explorative study.

2010 115 s. Hinta 30 euroa (Tuotekoodi A45) ISBN 978-951-628-509-5.